Mengapa harus TKA?

Saya sudah terbiasa mendapatkan link-link tentang berita sentimen negatif terhadap Tenaga Kerja Asing (TKA) di group-group WhatsApp. Tapi baru kali ini saya merasa ingin menulis mengenai hal tesebut. Niatnya sekadar berbagi pemahaman tentang apa yang terjadi dengan penggunaan TKA di Industri-industri pionir dalam rangka investasi yang sedang digiatkan oleh pemerintah Indonesia.

Rasanya kita semua tahu jumlah penduduk di negeri China. China masih merupakan negara yang paling banyak penduduknya di dunia. Indonesia berada di peringkat ke-empat setelah China, India dan Amerika Serikat. Lalu kenapa kenapa perusahaan di Indonesia harus “mengimpor” TKA di saat banyak orang Indonesia yang juga membutuhkan pekerjaan? Kenapa pula harus dari China?

Menilik dari sejarah, kerja sama bilateral antara Indonesia dan China  sudah berlangsung selama kurang lebih 70 tahun. Dengan berfokus pada peningkatan ekonomi regional, ASEAN dan ASIA kemudahan-kemudahan diberikan dalam kerja sama kedua negara, termasuk di bidang ekonomi.

China yang merasa berkepentingan untuk tetap bisa mensuplai kebutuhan industri di negaranya akhirnya turut serta untuk berinvestasi membangun pabrik-pabrik di Indonesia dengan investasi sendiri atau bekerja sama dengan pengusaha Indonesia.

Dalam kegiatan investasi khususnya untuk industri, Indonesia banyak terbantu dengan adanya investasi dari luar negeri. Pasar adalah hal yang utama dalam usaha industri. China memiliki basis industri yang kuat, sementara Indonesia berlimpah sumber daya alam. Belum lagi untuk dana pembangunan industri-industri strategis yang tergolong padat modal. Saya ingat bagaimana perusahaan tempat saya bekerja harus mengeluarkan modal sendiri di awal pembangunan sebelum perbankan akhirnya memberikan bantuan kredit. Modal sendiri yang dimaksud ini adalah salah satu bentuk kerja sama investasi business to business.  Selain alasan tersebut,  teknologi industri khususnya pengolahan dan pemurnian mineral di  Indonesia  masih belum bisa menyaingi luar negeri. Banyak hasil dari  lembaga-lembaga riset di Indonesia yang walaupun dinilai berhasil menciptakan teknologi, tetapi belum dapat diaplikasikan pada kegiatan industri. Belum proven, sementara industri pasti memilih teknologi yang efisien dan terjamin di segala aspek, salah satu yang penting adalah aspek lingkungan.

Industri memang memiliki impact yang cepat dalam peningkatan ekonomi. Kita tahu beberapa negara maju karena industrinya, dan saat ini China yang memegang peranan penting dalam industri, dan pasti berusaha untuk mempertahankan posisinya. Sebelumnya dengan mengimpor bahan baku ke negaranya, mereka tetap bisa stabil. Namun negara-negara pemilik bahan baku mulai sadar bahwa mereka bisa terkuras hingga habis. Philipina dan Indonesia adalah dua negara yang mulai menghentikan suplai ke China.

Sejak Pemerintah melarang ekspor mineral khususnya bijih nikel mulai Januari 2020, Sumber Daya Alam berupa hasil tambang yang salah satu contohnya adalah nickel ore (pasir yang mengandung mineral nikel) harus melalui proses pemurnian jika ingin diekspor. . Tujuannya untuk membangun industrialisasi di dalam negeri yang akan memberikan nilai tambah pada hasil tambang sehingga meningkatkan nilai eskpor agar neraca perdagangan negara menjadi surplus.

TKA untuk Pembangunan Pabrik

Proses konstruksi kebanyakan masih menggunakan  TKA. Walaupun ada gambar kerja,  alih informasi jika dikerjakan oleh TKI bisa saja terjadi kesalahan.  Kebanyakan kontrak pembangunan menggunakan proyek EPC (Engineering Procurement Construction). Proyek EPC adalah salah satu bentuk konsep manajemen proyek yang melimpahkan tanggung jawab atas kegiatan perancangan/desain (Engineering), pengadaan material/peralatan (Procurement) dan pelaksanaan konstruksi (Construction) kepada kontraktor EPC Tujuannya mempercepat proses pembangunan sehingga proyek dikerjakan oleh satu pihak saja, lebih efektif dan efisien. Apalagi dengan contoh industri smelter, yang dibuat adalah konstruksi Electric Furnace (tungku elektrik) yang di Indonesia adalah teknologi yang terbilang baru. Efektifitas dan efisiensi jadi pertimbangan untuk membangun sebuah industri karena berhubungan dengan modal yang digunakan.

TKA untuk Operasional Pabrik

Pemerintah sudah menerapkan banyak aturan berkenaan dengan penggunaan TKA. Syaratnya harus  memiliki keahlian dalam menjalankan produksi. Setiap TKA didampingi oleh minimal 10 TKI, dan proses alih teknologi harus terjadi, dan menjadi tanggung jawab perusahaan ke pemerintah pada saat pengajuan TKA berikutnya. Pelaksanaan aturan ini diawasi oleh Kementrian Tenaga Kerja. Bersyukur juga dengan begini kita tetap bisa belajar dari para  TKA yang datang dan alih teknologi bisa berjalan.

Kenapa bukan TKI saja yang bekerja?

Dari pengalaman saat perekrutan, sumber daya manusia yang melamar kerja masih kurang spesifik dapat memenuhi kebutuhan industri. TKI pada umumnya berpendidikan umum sementara di perusahaan membutuhkan tenaga-tenaga yang memiliki keahlian spesifik. Dari proses pendidikan hingga kesiapan bekerja masih tidak sinkron. Banyaknya lulusan S1 yang akhirnya tidak dapat bekerja karena tidak sesuai dengan kebutuhan lapangan kerja menjadi indikator bahwa ada sistem yang perlu diperbaiki.

Salah satu contoh, S1 Teknik Mesin misalnya, walaupun secara teori menguasai tentang alat las, namun yang dibutuhkan adalah tenaga yang bisa memegang dan mengoperasikan alat tersebut, karena sifatnya keahlian ini butuh waktu untuk mempelajarinya. Keahlian yang merupakan hard skill adalah kriteria setelah soft skill.

Pemerintah telah mencanangkan program Vokasi Industri. Vokasi industri adalah sinkronisasi penyiapan tenaga kerja siap pakai antara lembaga pendidikan dan industri-industri yang ada. Walaupun agak terlambat tetapi hasilnya mulai nampak. Perusahaan membina beberapa SMK dengan menyesuaikan kurikulum pendidikan dengan kebutuhan industri.

Kesiapan mental dalam bekerja pun sangat penting. Dari pengalaman saya, pengetahuan tentang sikap dan toleransi terhadap budaya kerja ini yang masih kurang. Lebih banyak menuntut hak sebagai pekerja dibanding memperbaiki diri sendiri. Saya sering menyampaikan dan mengingatkan  ke teman-teman, penentuan harga kita sebagai karwayan itu bukan dari aturan, tetapi dari kemampuan kita dalam  menguasai pekerjaan. Saya yakin dengan kompetensi yang dimiliki kita akan memiliki nilai jual, dan pasti perusahaan pun akan menjadikan aset yang berharga dan memelihara kita. Mentalitas kebanyakan karyawan atau calon karyawan masih berpikir, yang penting bisa kerja dan dapat uang bulanan. Sementara dari sisi perusahaan manpower adalah salah satu aset yang menentukan untuk perusahaan bisa berkembang.

Mempekerjakan TKA walaupun dari segi biaya mahal, tetapi karena kesiapan mereka bekerja dan hasil yang dicapai hitungannya menjadi lebih efektif. Jika TKI bisa menyamai kemampuan TKA saya yakin perusahaan akan memilih untuk mempekerjakan TKI dan tidak perlu mengikuti proses yang sangat ketat yang telah ditetapkan oleh pemerintah dalam mempekerjakan TKA.

Lalu apa yang harus dilakukan?

Stop Talking, Action!

Kadang karena kita sibuk dengan mengeluarkan pendapat apalagi menghujat, kita lupa untuk melakukan sesuatu. Jika dikatakan bahwa berbicara saja dapat merugikan kita, saya setuju. Masing-masing pasti punya tugas dan tanggung jawab, dan kesempatan untuk melakukan sesuatu jadi hilang. Berhentilah berperan menjadi Presiden jika kamu bukanlah orangnya. Tetapi sebagai karyawan seperti saya, saya harus membuat konsep bagaimana caranya agar masyarakat di sekitar pabrik yang tidak punya  pekerjaan dapat produktif. Apakah sebagai pekerja atau sebagai pengusaha mandiri.

Saya pikir semua juga punya tugas, jika sebagai seorang mahasiswa masanya bagi dia untuk mempersiapkan dirinya sebagai generasi penerus bangsa. Tapi kalau tujuan politik, ya mungkin tidak apa-apa jika belajar untuk menyuarakan pendapat. Cuma saja mentalitas penting karena jangan sampai menjadi politikus yang mengatasnamakan kepentingan rakyat padahal untuk kepentingan diri sendiri. Who knows?

Intinya berbuatlah yang terbaik untuk peranmu saat ini. Semakin fokus dengan itu insha Allah akan mengarah menjadi lebih baik. Soal TKA, semoga mereka bisa cepat melakukan pekerjaannya termasuk memberikan pengajaran kepada para tenaga kerja lokal.

(disclaimer: penulis cuma salah satu unsur manajemen yang menulis berdasarkan pengamatan dan pengalaman)

688 thoughts on “Mengapa harus TKA?

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